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What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is one of the chronic diseases that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your primary source of energy and comes from the food that you eat. The pancreas makes a hormone, namely Insulin, which helps the cells to use the glucose from the food as energy. Sometimes your body does not make enough or any insulin or doesn’t use insulin properly. Glucose then stops in the blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over the time, that too much glucose in the blood causes health problems.
Types of Diabetes
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Both types of diabetes affect the way your body regulates blood sugar or glucose. Body cells use the glucose as the fuel, but to enter your cells, it needs Insulin as a key.
People with type 1 diabetes fail to produce insulin. In other words, you can think of the absence of a key.
People with type 2 diabetes remain unable to respond to insulin the way they should. So, later in the disease often don’t make enough insulin. In other words, you can think of this as having a broken key.
Both types of diabetes gradually lead to chronically high blood sugar levels. As a result, it increases the risk of diabetes complications.
How Does Obesity Cause Type 2 Diabetes?
In simple words, obesity refers to a chronic disease in which the body fails to burn/consume/use the full amount of intake calories. Therefore the human body stores the extra calories as fat that causes weight increase.
As per the published information of the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery: Obesity causes a lot of damage to the body. obese people are at a higher risk to have other diseases. These might be type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and many more. Added with obesity, these diseases may worsen the health of people. That may lead to any disability or early death.
Obesity is a major cause of type 2 diabetes. People affected by obesity or severe obesity are about 10 times more likely to have type 2 diabetes.
According to Diabetes.co.uk: It is proved that the obesity is 80-85% liable for causing type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, recent research suggests that obese people are up to 80 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with a BMI of less than 22.
It is a well-known fact that if you are overweight or obese, you are at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly if you have excess weight around your tummy (abdomen).
Obesity and Inflammatory Response
Studies suggest that abdominal fat causes fat cells to release ‘pro-inflammatory’ chemicals. Therefore, it can make the body less sensitive to the insulin it produces by disrupting the function of insulin-responsive cells and their ability to respond to insulin. This is known as insulin resistance – the hallmark of type 2 diabetes.
Having excess abdominal fat (i.e., a large waistline) is known as central or abdominal obesity, a particularly high-risk form of obesity.
Obesity and Disruption in Fat Metabolism
Obesity also triggers changes to the body’s metabolism. These changes cause fat tissue (adipose tissue) to release fat molecules into the blood. As a result, this affects insulin-responsive cells and leads to reduced insulin sensitivity.
Another theory is that obesity causes prediabetes, a metabolic condition that almost always develops into type 2 diabetes.
Obesity and Insulin Resistance
According to the Journal of The National Center for Biotechnology Information: Obesity is considered the most critical cause of metabolic diseases. White adipose tissue affects your metabolism by secreting hormones, glycerol, and other substances. That includes leptin, cytokines, adiponectin, and pro-inflammatory substances. It also impacts metabolism by releasing NEFAs. In obese individuals, these substances are secreted more.
The main reason of insulin insensitivity is the secretion of NEFAs. Increased secretion of NEFAs is observed in type 2 diabetes and obesity. It is also associated with insulin resistance in both conditions.
Body fat distribution also determines insulin insensitivity. Body mass index is related to insulin resistance at any degree of weight gain. The individuals whose fat distribution is more peripheral have more insulin sensitivity than do individuals whose fat distribution is more central (i.e., in the abdomen and chest area).
Fat storage and mobilization are other essential factors causing insulin resistance.
Obesity and β-cell Dysfunction
β-cells are very important for regulating insulin release, despite their fragility. The quantity of insulin released by β-cells fluctuates and changes according to the amount, nature, and route of administration of the stimulus. Therefore, β-cells play a significant role in ensuring that in healthy subjects, concentrations of blood glucose are stable within a relatively normal physiological range. In obesity, both insulin sensitivity and the modulation of β-cell function, decreases.
A continued decline in β-cell function is one of the leading causes leading to type 2 diabetes.
According to the Journal of The National Center for Biotechnology Information: Obesity and Diabetes are chronic disorders that are on the rise worldwide. Body mass index has a strong relationship with diabetes and insulin resistance. In an obese individual, the amount of NEFA, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, pro-inflammatory substances, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance are increased. Insulin resistance with impairment of β-cell function leads to the development of diabetes. Gaining weight in early life is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. NEFA is a cornerstone in the event of insulin resistance and the impairment of β-cell function.
If you feel extra subcutaneous fats or abdominal fats around your belly, it is a symptom of obesity. It is wise to check your Body Mass Index and Body fats with a reliable Digital Scale. It is necessary to include High Protein Foods and physical activity like walking, bodybuilding and Yoga. If you feel repetitive cravings for food or sweets then it is better to take Appetite Suppressants to control it.
You may love to read our Weight Loss Guide supported by more than 600 research studies.
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes statistics report, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf External link (PDF, 1.3 MB) . Updated July, 18 2017.
- American Society for Metabolic and Briatric Surgery https://asmbs.org/patients/impact-of-obesity
- Diabete.co.uk https://www.diabetes.co.uk/diabetes-and-obesity.html
- National Center for Biotechnology Information https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4259868/